Application of jigs and fixtures


Typically, the jigs and fixtures found in a machine shop are for machining operations. Other operations, however, such as assembly, inspection, testing, and layout, are also areas where work holding devices are well suited. Figure 1-7 shows a list of the more-common classifications and applications of jigs and fixtures used for manufacturing. There are many distinct variations within each general classification, and many work holders are actually combinations of two or more of the classifications shown. EXTERNAL-MACHINING APPLICATIONS:
Flat-Surface Machining
   • Milling fixtures
   • Surface-grinding fixtures
   • Planing fixtures
   • Shaping fixtures

Cylindrical-Surface Machining
   • Lathe fixtures
   • Cylindrical-grinding fixtures

Irregular-Surface Machining
   • Band-sawing fixtures
   • External-broaching fixtures
Cylindrical- and Irregular-Hole Machining
   • Drill jigs
   • Boring jigs
   • Electrical-discharge-machining fixtures
   • Punching fixtures
   • Internal-broaching fixtures
   • Welding fixtures
   • Mechanical-assembly fixtures
     (Riveting, stapling, stitching, pinning, etc.)
   • Soldering fixtures

   • Mechanical-inspection fixtures
   • Optical-inspection fixtures
   • Electronic-inspection fixtures

   • Painting fixtures
   • Plating fixtures
   • Polishing fixtures
   • Lapping fixtures
   • Honing fixtures

   • Layout templates
   • Testing fixtures
   • Heat-treating fixtures
Modular Fixtures

Modular fixtures achieve many of the advantages of a permanent tool using only a temporary setup. Depicted in Figure 1-4, these workholders combine ideas and elements of permanent and general-purpose workholding.

Figure 1-4. Modular workholders combine ideas and elements of both permanent and temporary workholding to make inexpensive-yet-durable workholders.

The primary advantage of modular fixtures is that a tool with the benefits of permanent tooling (setup reduction, durability, productivity improvements, and reduced operator decision-making) can be built from a set of standard components. The fixture can be disassembled when the run is complete, to allow the reuse of the components in a different fixture. At a later time the original can be readily reconstructed from drawings, instructions, and photographic records. This reuse enables the construction of a complex, high-precision tool without requiring the corresponding dedication of the fixture components.

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